Sunday, March 21, 2010

Disease Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Disease Diabetes Mellitus (DM), also known as diabetes or blood sugar disease is a chronic disease group characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels as a result of disturbances in the body's metabolic system, where the organ pancreas unable to produce insulin the body needs.

Insulin is one of the hormones produced by the pancreas which is responsible for controlling the number/blood sugar and insulin is needed to change (process) of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy needed human body. Lower insulin function in blood sugar levels.

1. Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Early signs that it is known that a person suffering from DM or diabetes that can be seen directly from the effect of increasing blood sugar levels, which increase blood sugar reaches 160 to 180 mg/dL and urine (urine) diabetic containing sugar (glucose ), so the urine is often surrounded by ants.

People with diabetes generally show signs and symptoms below, although not all patients experience:

1. Number of urine issued more (Polyuria)
2. Often or quickly feel thirsty / thirst (Polydipsia)
3. Excessive hunger or eat a lot (Polyphagia)
4. Increased urine frequency / urine kept (glycosuria)
5. Losing weight is not clear why
6. Tingling / numbness nerve endings in the hands & feet ditelapak
7. Quick tired and weak all the time
8. Myopic vision experience sudden
9. If the wound / etched (korengan) slow healing
Especially 10.Mudah infection of the skin.

Condition drastic sugar levels rapidly decrease will cause a person to become unconscious and even entered the stage of coma. Symptoms of diabetes can develop quickly over time in a matter of weeks or months, especially in a child who suffered from diabetes mellitus type 1.

Another case in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, they generally do not experience the symptoms above. Even they may not know has suffered from diabetes.

2. Disease Type Diabetes Mellitus

1. Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes type 1 diabetes who are dependent on insulin deficiency where the body of the hormone insulin, known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). This is due to the loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the islands of Langerhans of the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is usually found in infants, children and adolescents.

Until recently, type 1 Diabetes Mellitus can only treat with the provision of insulin therapy continuously conducted continuously. Family history, diet and environmental factors influenced the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes should be considered controlling and monitoring blood sugar levels, you should use a blood sugar test. Especially in children and toddlers which they very easily become dehydrated, vomiting and often prone to various diseases.

2. Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes type 2 is where the hormone insulin in the body can not function properly, known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). This is because the various possibilities such as defects in insulin production, insulin resistance or reduced sensitivity (response) and sell the body tissue to insulin is indicated by rising levels of insulin in the blood.

There are several theories that articulate the cause of insulin resistance, including obesity factors (obesity). In type 2 diabetes, controlling blood sugar levels can be done with some measures such as diet, weight loss, and the provision of diabetic tablets. If the provision is not maximized tablet treatment response in blood sugar levels, then injecting the drug began to be considered.

3. Blood sugar

Normal blood sugar levels ranging from 70 to 150 mg/dL (millimoles/liter (United Kingdom unit)) or 4 to 8 mmol/l (milligrams/deciliter (United State unit)), Where 1 mmol/l = 18 mg/dl.

However, of course sugar levels increase after eating and decreased at a time when early morning waking. Someone said to have hyperglycemia when the blood sugar levels well above normal values, while hypoglycemia is a condition where a person experienced a decrease in blood sugar values below normal.

Diabetes Diagnosis can be established if the results of the fasting blood sugar level reaches 126 mg/dL or even more, and checking blood sugar after 2 hours of fasting (minimum 8 hours) to reach the level of 180 mg/dl. Meanwhile, blood sugar tests are done at random (as) can help diagnose diabetes when blood sugar values reached levels between 140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL, even more so when he over 200 mg/dl.

Many blood sugar testing devices that are traded today and can be purchased in many places selling medical devices or pharmacy as the Accu-Chek, BCJ Group, Accurate, OneTouch UltraEasy machine. For patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus, it's good for them to be able to buy it.

4. Disease Treatment and Management of Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes generally undergo treatment insulin therapy (Lantus/Levemir, Humalog, Novolog or Apidra) is continuous, but it is by exercising sufficiently and controlling your diet (diet).

In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, management of medication and treatment focuses on lifestyle and physical activity. Control values in blood sugar levels is the key to treatment programs, namely by reducing the weight, diet, and exercise. If this does not achieve the expected results, the tablet drug delivery would be required. Even giving insulin injections is required when a tablet'm not cope with controlling blood sugar levels.


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