Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Beware, Measles Diseases Threatening

Measles Diseases Threatening - Compared with 10 years ago, routine immunization coverage of several that must be given appropriate government programs tend to decrease. This resulted in a number of infectious diseases in infants, such as measles, is not resolved and still threatens infants who are not immunized.

Some areas do not yet optimal immunization, with coverage of less than 90 percent in 2008. For measles immunization in Papua, for example, only covered 60.7 percent, 77.6 percent of West Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara 74.2 percent. Measles is a disease marked by high fever and a rash. This disease in the world to kill one of the 1,000 cases of infection.

Not achieving the target of immunization to include all infants, in some areas, partly due to the still limited public understanding of immunization even wrong, especially in urban areas. As in rural areas because of lack of infrastructure and lack of healthy way of life.

"The success of immunization programs depends on the readiness of health workers, the level of public awareness, and tools to ensure the effectiveness of the vaccine," said Director General of Disease Control & Environmental Health Department Tjandra Yoga Aditama, Saturday (5/9) in Jakarta.

Five mandatory immunization

Immunization efforts in Indonesia have been conducted since the 1970s in infants and children. According the government's immunization program, there are five types of immunizations must be given to infants aged 0-11 months, namely polio, BCG, hepatitis B, DPT, and measles.

As for the recommended immunizations is MMR, Hib, typhoid, hepatitis A, varicella, PPV, and pneumococcal (IPD).

Some of the benefits of immunization are required to be given that include hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B, BCG vaccine to prevent severe tuberculosis, DPT vaccine to prevent diphtheria, whooping cough (pertussis) and tetanus. The polio vaccine to prevent polio.

However, immunization coverage must be given the decline in recent years compared with 10 last year. For example, DPT immunization coverage nationally in 1997 reached 100 percent or more, whereas in 2008 the coverage fell to 91.6 percent. With the goal of immunization in infants of about 5 million children, this means that there are approximately 420,000 babies are not getting the DPT vaccine.

This condition causes a number of infectious diseases in children under five can not be resolved until there is no longer the case. For example, the number of measles cases in 2007 totaled 18,488 people. Polio emerged in 2005 after being found since 1995 despite successfully eliminated after the national immunization.

Preventing infection

Immunization is fundamental to give to each child. "The future of the child is determined at this time. Therefore, one of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals is to reduce infant mortality and child mortality, combat infectious diseases, "said Chairman of the Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) Bagriul Hegar.

So far, the deaths of children under the age of one year in Indonesia is very high. According to the Demographic and Health Survey of Indonesia, in 2007 infant mortality rate was 34 per 1,000 live births. "The infant mortality rate in Indonesia, the highest among ASEAN countries," said Sri Rezeki S Hadinegoro, Chairman of the Task Force on Immunization IDAI.

About 75 percent of infant deaths under the age of 1 year due to acute respiratory infections (ARI), perinatal complications (infants aged 0-28 days), and diarrhea. Therefore, efforts to overcome the third-leading cause of morbidity and mortality must take precedence. Many ARI-related illnesses can be prevented by immunization, including measles, pertussis, Hib, and pneumococcal.

Immunization also prevents the diseases in the future. For example, hepatitis B in infants can prevent liver cancer in the productive age. Because 90 percent of babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be infected with the virus, 95 percent of them develop into chronic liver disease and cancer.

"Giving the vaccine to protect children from infectious diseases that attack can cause death and disability. Immunization stimulates the body's immunological system to form specific antibodies that can protect the body against disease, "said Sri Rezeki.

Advantages vaccine can be felt individually, socially, and support the national health system. If a child has been vaccinated, 80-95 percent will be spared from the disease. This is the chain of disease transmission from children to other children or adults who live together, lowering the cost of treatment and hospital care, to prevent death and disability for life.


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